Psilocybe cubensis is a species of psychedelic mushroom whose principal active compounds are psilocybin and psilocin. Commonly called shrooms, magic mushrooms, golden tops, cubes, or gold caps, it belongs to the fungus family Hymenogastraceae and was previously known as Stropharia cubensis. It is the most well-known psilocybin mushroom due to its wide distribution and ease of cultivation.
Psilocybin mushrooms, commonly known as magic mushrooms or shrooms, are a polyphyletic, informal group of fungi that contain psilocybin and psilocin. Biological genera containing psilocybin mushrooms include Copelandia, Gymnopilus, Inocybe, Panaeolus, Pholiotina, Pluteus, and Psilocybe. Psilocybin mushrooms have been and continue to be used in indigenous New World cultures in religious, divinatory, or spiritual contexts. They may be depicted in Stone Age rock art in Africa and Europe, but are most famously represented in the Pre-Columbian sculptures and glyphs seen throughout Central and South America.
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Shroom Dose Ranges
- Microdose: 0.1 – 0.5 grams
- Low Dose: 0.5 – 2 grams
- Moderate Dose: 2 – 3.5 grams
- High Dose: 3.5 – 5 grams and above
Types of shrooms
Golden Teacher mushrooms have a distinct appearance, with long, winding stems and wide caps. They are a favorite among growers for being relatively easy to maintain and cultivate.
Golden Teachers have mild potency and a variety of effects. These include visual distortions, enhanced colors, lightness or giddiness, and powerful emotions. People also report feeling euphoric, spiritually in-tune, and perceptive when taking Golden Teacher mushrooms.
Golden Teacher trips can often be revelatory, or at least insightful. As suggested by their name, these mushrooms impart powerful lessons that remain even after the experience.
A Golden Teacher dosage, like most other psilocybin mushrooms, would start at around two grams dried. Two grams should be enough for most people to feel some effects, but nothing overpowering. A higher dosage would begin with three or more grams, and exceeding five grams should be plenty to experience the Golden Teacher in full force. They can take effect in as quickly as 20 minutes, and the experience usually lasts for four to six hours.
2. Liberty caps
Psilocybe semilanceata, commonly known as the liberty cap, is a species of fungus that produces the psychoactive compounds psilocybin and baeocystin. It is both one of the most widely distributed psilocybin mushrooms in nature, and one of the most potent. The mushrooms have a distinctive conical to the bell-shaped cap, up to 2.5 cm (1.0 in) in diameter, with a small nipple-like protrusion on the top. They are yellow to brown, covered with radial grooves when moist, and fade to a lighter color as they mature. Their stripes tend to be slender and long, and the same color or slightly lighter than the cap. The gill attachment to the stipe is adnexed (narrowly attached), and they are initially cream-colored before tinting purple as the spores mature. The spores are dark purplish-brown in mass, ellipsoid in shape, and measure 10.5–15 by 6.5–8.5 micrometers.
The mushroom grows in grassland habitats, especially wetter areas. But unlike P. cubensis, the fungus does not grow directly on dung; rather, it is a saprobic species that feed off decaying grassroots. It is widely distributed in the temperate areas of the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in Europe, and has been reported occasionally in temperate areas of the Southern Hemisphere as well. The earliest reliable history of P. semilanceata intoxication dates back to 1799 in London, and in the 1960s the mushroom was the first European species confirmed to contain psilocybin.
3. Penis Envy
Penis envy (German: Penisneid) is a stage theorized by Sigmund Freud regarding female psychosexual development, in which young girls experience anxiety upon realization that they do not have a penis. Freud considered this realization a defining moment in a series of transitions toward mature female sexuality and gender identity. In Freudian theory, the penis envy stage begins the transition from an attachment to the mother to competition with the mother for the attention, recognition, and affection of the father. The parallel reaction of a boy’s realization that women do not have a penis is castration anxiety.
Freud’s theory on penis envy was criticized and debated by other psychoanalysts, such as Karen Horney, Ernest Jones, Helene Deutsch, and Melanie Klein, specifically on the treatment of penis envy as a fixed operation as opposed to a formation constructed or used in a secondary manner to fend off earlier wishes.